Friday, August 30, 2019

NTA NET PAPER 1 :- Common Computer Abbreviations


Operating Systems and Data Storage Based
  • BIOS – This is the Basic Input Output System which controls the computer, telling it what operations to perform. These instructions are on a chip that connects to the motherboard.
  • BYTE – A byte is a storage unit for data.
  • CPU – This stands for the Central Processing Unit of the computer. This is like the computer’s brain.
  • OS – This is the Operating System of the computer. It is the main program that runs on a computer and begins automatically when the computer is turned on.
  • PC – This is the abbreviation for personal computer. It refers to computers that are IBM compatible.
  • PDF – This represents the Portable Document Format which displays files in a format that is ready for the web.
  •  RAM – This stands for Random Access Memory which is the space inside the computer that can be accessed at one time. If you increase the amount of RAM, then you will increase the computer’s speed. This is because more of a particular program is able to be loaded at one time.
  • ROM – This is Read Only Memory which is the instruction for the computer and can not be altered.
  • VGA – The Video Graphics Array is a system for displaying graphics. It was developed by IBM.
  • WYSIWYG – This initialism stands for What You See Is What You Get. It is pronounced  “wizziwig” and basically means that the printer will print what you see on your monitor.
Internet Network Based
  •  FTP – This is a service called File Transport Protocol which moves a file between computers using the Internet.
  • HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language formats information so it can be transported on the Internet.
  • HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a set of instructions for the software that controls the movement of files on the Internet.
  • IP – This stands for Internet Protocol which is the set of rules that govern the systems connected to the Internet. IP Address is a digital code specific to each computer that is hooked up to the Internet.
  • ISP – The Internet Service Provider is the company which provides Internet service so you can connect your computer to the Internet.
  • LAN – This stands for Local Area Network which is the servers that your computer connects to in your geographic area.
  • PPP – Point-to-Point Protocol is the set of rules that allow your computer to use the Internet protocols using a phone line and modem.
  • URL – This is the Uniform Resource Locator which is a path to a certain file on the World Wide Web.
  • USB – The Universal Serial Bus is used for communications between certain devices. It can connect keyboards, cameras, printers, mice, flash drives, and other devices. Its use has expanded from personal computers to PDAs, smartphones, and video games, and is used as a power cord to connect devices to a wall outlet to charge them.
  • VR – Virtual Reality simulates a three-dimensional scene on the computer and has the capability of interaction. This is widely used in gaming.
Computer Abbreviations

  1. • AGP –>Accelerated Graphic Port
  2. • PC –>Personal Computer
  3. • EPROM –>Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
  4. • BIOS –>Basic Input and Output System
  5. • HDD –>Hard Disk Drive
  6. • PCI –>Peripheral Component Interconnect
  7. • UNIVAC –>Universal Automatic Computer
  8. • GUI –>Graphic User Interface
  9. • USB –>Universal Serial Bus
  10. • VGA –>Visual Graphic Adaptor
  11. • MAN –>Metropolitan Area Network
  12. • ASCII –>American Standard Code for Information Interchange
  13. • WAN –>Wide Area Network
  14. • EBCDIC –>Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
  15. • LAN –>Local Area Network
  16. • EEPROM/EAPROM –>Electrical Erasable/Alterable Programmable Read Only Memory
  17. • CPU –>Central Processing Unit
  18. • OS –>Operating System
  19. • ALU –>Arithmetic and Logic Unit
  20. • DVD –>Digital Versatile Disc
  21. • CD –>Compact Disk
  22. • ROM –>Read Only Memory
  23. • VDU –>Visual Display Unit
  24. • RAM –>Random Access Memory
  25. • ICT –>Information Communication Technology
  26. • PROM –>Programmable Read Only Memory
  27. • URL –>Uniform Resource Locator
  28. • IDE –>Integrated Drive Electronics
  29. • FORTRAN –>Formular Translator
  30. • MOS –>Metaoxide Semi Conductor
  31. • ATX –>Advanced Technology Extended
  32. • SIM –>Subscriber Identification Module
  33. • MHZ –>Megahertz
  34. • ISP –>Internet Service Provider
  35. • GHZ –>Gigahertz
  36. • DBMS –>Database Management System
  37. • SQL –>Structured Query Language
  38. • RW –>Re-Writeable
  39. • SDT –>Serial Data Transmission
  40. • CAN –>Campus Area Network
  41. • SIMMs –>Single In-line Memory Module
  42. • PAN –>Personal Area Network
  43. • DIMMs –>Dual In-line Memory Module
  44. • CMOS –>Complimentary Metaoxide Semi Conductor
  45. • ENIAC –>Electronic Number Integrator And Calculator
  46. • CMD –>Command
  47. • EDSAC –>Electronic Dialog Storage Automatic Computer
  48. • MAC –>Media Access Control
  49. • IC –>Integrated Circuit
  50. • LSIC –>Large Scale Integrated Circuit
  51. • DIR –>Directory
  52. • GIGO –>Gabbage In Gabbage Out
  53. • PHP –>PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
  54. • DOC –>Document
  55. • PDT –>Parallel Data Transmission
  56. • PDA –>Personal Digital Assistant
  57. • USSD –>Unstructured Supplementary Service Data
  58. • WWW –>World Wide Web
  59. • COBOL –>Common Basic Oriented Language
  60. • CCNP –>Cisco Certified Network Professionals
  61. • BASIC –>Beginner All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code 
  62. • CEH –>Certified Ethical Hacking
  63. • TCP –>Transmission Control Protocol
  64. • CSS –>Cascading Style Sheet
  65. • CISCO –>Computer Information System Company
  66. • XXS –>Cross Site Scripting
  67. • XML –>Extensible Mark-up Language
  68. • HTML –>Hypertext Markup Language
  69. • CCNA –>Cisco Certified Network Associate
  70. • RFI –>Remote File Inclusion
  71. • HTTP –>Hypertext Transfer Protocol
  72. • DDOS –>Distribution Denial Of Service
  73. • VPN –>Virtual Private Network
  74. • SEO –>Search Engine Optimization
  75. • IP –>Internet Protocol


The most common document file extensions are:
  • .DOC and DOCX
  • .HTML and .HTM
  • .PDF
  • .XLS and XLSX
  • .PPT and .PPTX
  • .TXT
  • .jpg
  • .png



Funamentals of Computer
















ICT and Governance

The “e” in e-Governance stands for ‘electronic’. Thus, e-Governance is basically associated with carrying out the functions and achieving the results of governance through the utilization of ICT (Information and Communications Technology).

In this century where almost everything has been made electronic like e-commerce, e-service, e- learning, etc. the Indian government is also trying to go with the wave and wants to govern through ICT. E-governance needs the help of ICT services to achieve their objective anytime and anywhere. It eliminates the need of physical travel by citizens to various government offices in order to get their work done.

The major objective of e-governance is to support and simplify governance for all the government agents, citizens and businesses.

E-governance also means e-democracy where all forms of communications between the electorate and the electoral happen electronically or digitally.


Background
India is country of villages and for overall prosperity, growth and sustainable development ,ICT and Governance play a key role not only in terms of e-Governance models to demonstrate the key changes we see in the services for healthcare, education, banking, mobility, agriculture and other allied fields but also to keep country on the path of development in emerging competition on various fronts from other countries.

1970 : Department of Electronics
1977 : National Informatics Centre(NIC)
1980 : Use of computers began
1987 : Launch of NICENET & DISNIC
1998 : National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development 1999 : Union Ministry of Information Technology
2000 -05: 12 point e-Governance launched by central & state Govt with focus on G2C,G2B, G2G initiatives
2006 -11: National e-Government Plan(NeGP) 2012 -17: Current E-GoV & Digital India

ICT and Governance
The term e-governance focuses on the use of new ICT by governments as applied to the full range of government functions. Thus e-governance is the application of information and communication technology for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication, transaction, integration, various stands alone systems and services between government and citizens, government and business as well as back office process and interaction within the entire government frame work.
ICT acts in speeding up the flow of information and knowledge between government and citizen and transforming the way in which government and citizen interact.

Types of Government Interaction in e-governance.

G2G: Government to Government
G2C: Government to Citizen
G2B: Government to Business
G2E: Government to Employee

Benefits
Increases accountability
Increases transparency
Higher availability of public domain information

Reduces corruption
Higher penetration due to automation

Increases efficiency due to connectivity

2006 -11: National e-Government Plan(NeGP)
National e-Governance Plan(NeGP) – make all government services accessible to common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency & reliability of such services at affordable cost to realize the basic needs of the common man.
Initiatives under NeGP
State Wide Area Networks – connect all state
State Data Centres – host Govt apps
Common Services Centres – internet enabled centres at district level
Electronic forms through state portal – download forms & submit applications
Capacity Building – implementation from city to village
E-District – provide district administration services by web services like right to information, social welfare, ration card, birth & death certificate etc.
Citizen engagement – deep awareness of project


Current E-Gov – 12th 5yr plan (2012-17)
Deliver all Govt services in electronic mode so as to make Govt process transparent, citizen centric, efficient and easy accessible
Create sharable resources for all Govt entities
To deliver both information & transaction of Govt services over mobile
Build shared service platforms to accelerate e-Gov project implementation
To strengthen & improve existing project through innovation and infusion of advanced technology
To promote ethical use of technology & data and create safe & secure cyber world
To create ecosystem that promotes innovation in ICT for governance & for applications that can benefit the citizens Ø To better target welfare schemes of central & state Govt
To increase all round awareness & create mechanism that promotes & encourages citizen engagement
To make available as much data as possible in public domain for productive use by citizens
Digital India
The Digital India programme is a flagship programme of the Government of India with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy.
The focus is on being transformative – to realize IT + IT = IT The focus is on making technology central to enable change. It is an Umbrella Programme – covering many departments.
It weaves together a large number of ideas and thoughts into a single, comprehensive vision so that each of them is seen as part of a larger goal.
1. Each individual element stands on its own. But is also part of the larger picture.
2. It is coordinated by DeitY, implemented by the entire government.
3. The weaving together makes the Mission transformative in totality
The Programme:
1. Pulls together many existing schemes.
2. These schemes will be restructured and re-focused.
3. They will be implemented in a synchronized manner.
4. Many elements are only process improvements with minimal cost.
5. The common branding of programs as Digital India highlights their transformative impact.

Nine Pillars of Digital India
  1. Broadband highways – To support Broadband for all Rural, Broadband for all Urban & National Information infrastructure by DoT & DeitY
  2. Universal access to mobile connectivity- For providing coverage to uncovered villages with mobile connectivity
  3. Public internet access programme- This has two important sub components
    1. CSCs- Aims to cover each gram panchayat to provide delivery of e_services to the citizens 2. Post-Office- To be converted into multi service centers
  4. E-governance – reforming government through technology
    1. Online applications and tracking – Online applications and tracking of their status should be provided.
    2. Online repositories – Use of online repositories e.g. for certificates, educational degrees, identity documents, etc. should be mandated so that citizens are not required to submit these documents in physical form.
    3. Integration of services and platforms – Integration of services and platforms e.g. Aadhaar platform of Unique Identity Authority of India (UIDAI), payment gateway, Mobile Seva platform, sharing of data through open Application Programming Interfaces (API) and middleware such as National and State Service Delivery Gateways (NSDG/SSDG) should be mandated to facilitate integrated and interoperable service delivery to citizens and businesses.
  1. Ekranti – electronic delivery of services- There are 44 Mission Mode Projects under e-Kranti programme. These mission mode projects are grouped into Central, State and Integrated projects. 
  2. Information for all- Open Data platform, Social Media Engagement and Online Messaging
  3. Electronics manufacturing- promoting electronics manufacturing in the country with the target of NET ZERO Import by 2020
  4. IT for jobs- This pillar focuses on providing training to the youth in the skills required for availing employment opportunities in the IT/ITES sector.
  5. Early harvest programmes- Early Harvest Programme basically consists of those projects which are to be implemented within short timeline. Such as Biometric attendance, Wi-Fi in public places, secure email, SMS based alerts.


Key Points to remember
The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) has been formulated by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DEITY) and Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) in 2006.

















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